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4.5.1 Land Repair, Epoxy Method
Outline
This method is used to replace damaged and lifted lands. The damaged lands are replaced with new lands. The new lands are bonded to the circuit board surface using epoxy.

Caution
This method is used to replace a damaged or missing land, but the new land will not have an intermetallic connection to the remaining plated hole. The solder joint of the replaced component will restore the electrical connection.

Caution
It is essential that the board surface be smooth and flat. If the base board is damaged see appropriate procedure.

Note
This method uses new lands that are fabricated from copper foil. They are available in hundreds of sizes and shapes and are generally supplied solder plated. If a special size or shape is needed it can be custom fabricated.


Minimum Skill Level - Advanced
Recommended for technicians with soldering and component rework skills and exposure to most repair/rework procedures, but lacking extensive experience.

Conformance Level - Medium
This procedure may have some variance with the physical character of the original and most likely varies with some of the functional, environmental and serviceability factors.

Acceptability References
IPC-A-600 2.0 Externally Observable Characteristics
IPC-A-610 10.0 Laminate Conditions
Procedure References
1.0 Foreword
2.1 Handling Electronic Assemblies
2.2 Cleaning
2.5 Baking And Preheating
2.7 Epoxy Mixing and Handling
IPC7721 4.5.1 Land Repair, Epoxy Method
Tools and Materials
Soldering Iron
Circuit Frames
Replacement circuits with a dry-film adhesive backing for conductor repair.
Cleaner
Cleaner
General purpose cleaner for removing contamination.
CircuitMedic Part
Circuit Bond Packs
Clear, superior strength epoxy in two-compartment plastic packages
CircuitMedic Part
High Temp Tape Discs
High temperature polyimide tape discs, .50" diameter.
CircuitMedic Part
Knife with #16 Blades
A must-have tool for precise cutting, scraping and trimming.
Microscope
Microscope
It is a challenge to undertake precision repair without a good microscope.
Oven
Oven
General purpose oven for drying, baking and curing epoxies.
CircuitMedic Part
Scraper
Hardened stainless steel tip for scraping solder mask and removing defects.
Soldering Iron
Soldering Iron, Solder and Flux
A well maintained soldering iron is a must at every tech bench.
CircuitMedic Part
Tweezer, Point Tip
Fine point tweezers for precision work.
Wipes
Wipes
Nonabrasive, low-linting wipes for cleanup.
Images and Figures
4.5.1 Land Repair, Epoxy Method
Damaged Land
4.5.1 Land Repair, Epoxy Method
Figure 1: Remove the defective land and remove soldermask from the connecting circuit.
4.5.1 Land Repair, Epoxy Method
Figure 2: Select a replacement land that matches the missing land.
4.5.1 Land Repair, Epoxy Method
Figure 3: Cut out the replacement land.
4.5.1 Land Repair, Epoxy Method
Figure 4: Place the new land in place using Kapton tape.
4.5.1 Land Repair, Epoxy Method
Figure 5: Completed repair.

Procedure 
  1. Clean the area

  2. Remove the defective land and a short length of the connecting circuit if any. (See Figure 1)

  3. Use the knife and scrape off any epoxy residue, contamination or burned material from the board surface.

    Caution
    Abrasion operations can generate electrostatic charges.

  4. Scrape off any solder mask or coating from the connecting circuit. (See Figure 1)

  5. Clean the area

  6. Apply a small amount of liquid flux to the connection area on the board surface and tin with solder. Clean the area. The length of the overlap solder connection should be a minimum of 2 times the circuit width.

  7. The area for the new pad on the board surface must be smooth and flat. If internal fibers of the board are exposed or if there are deep scratches in the surface they should be repaired. Refer to appropriate procedure.

  8. Select a replacement land that most closely matches the land to be replaced. (See Figure 2)

  9. Cut out and trim the new land. Cut the length to provide the maximum allowable circuit overlap for soldering. Minimum 2 times the circuit width. (See Figure 3)

    Note
    The new replacement land may be trimmed from copper sheet.

  10. Mix the epoxy and apply a small amount to the surface where the new land will be placed.

  11. Place a piece of High Temperature Tape over the top surface of the land. Place the new land into position on the circuit board surface using the tape to aid in alignment. (See Figure 4)

  12. Cure the epoxy per Procedure 2.7 Epoxy Mixing and Handling.

  13. After the epoxy has cured, remove the High Temperature Tape used for the alignment. Carefully clean the area and inspect the new land for proper alignment.

  14. If the new land has a connecting circuit apply a small amount of liquid flux to the lap solder joint connection area and solder the circuit from the new land to the circuit on the circuit board surface. Use minimal flux and solder to ensure a reliable connection. Tape may be placed over the top of the new land to prevent excess solder.

    Note
    If the configuration permits, the overlap solder joint connection should be a minimum of 3.00 mm (0.125") from the related termination. This gap will minimize the possibility of simultaneous reflow during soldering operations. Refer to 7.1 Soldering Basics.

  15. Remove the tape and clean the area.

  16. Mix the epoxy and coat the lap solder joint connections. Cure the epoxy per Procedure 2.7 Epoxy Mixing and Handling.

    Note
    Additional epoxy can be applied around the perimeter of the new land to provide additional bond strength.

    Caution

    Some components may be sensitive to high temperature.

  17. Carefully remove any excess epoxy inside the plated hole using a ball mill or drill bit. Turn the ball mill or drill bit by hand to prevent damage to the wall of the plated through hole.

  18. Install the proper component and solder in place.

    Note
    This method is used to replace a damaged or missing land, but the new land will not have an intermetallic connection to the remaining plated hole. The solder joint of the replaced component will restore the integrity of the electrical connection or an eyelet or buss wire may be used. See Plated Hole Repair Procedures.

  19. Apply surface coating to match prior coating as required.

Evaluation

  1. Visual examination.

  2. Measurement of new pad width and spacing.

  3. Electrical continuity measurement.

Procedure for reference only.